Inflammation and Autism Spectrum Disorders

immune system

The immune system is a tightly controlled network of cells that at all times tries to maintain immune homeostasis, exquisite balance. Since the immune system interacts with virtually every organ system and biochemical pathway in the body, it is important that it stay in a state of homeostasis.

The walls of intestines have immune system components in them called gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT) and they are among the largest concentrations of immune cells in the body.

There is a class of immune cells called B-cells, which produce large immune proteins called antibodies. Antibodies, also called immunoglobulins or Igs, are produced in response to the body’s exposure to pathogens. The antibody will attach to the specific organism, attach to it, and trigger it for destruction by other immune cells. Antibodies can circulate through the body for years protecting it from infection from the initial pathogen. Depending on their role, antibodies in humans are of 5 different classes, IgA, IgD, IgE, IgG, and IgM.

More antibody-producing cells are found in the digestive tract than anywhere else in the body. Their embedded immune B cells, plasma cells, produce more specialized antibody, immunoglobulin IgA, than all other immunoglobulin types combined. Since the mouth is the main route by which pathogens enter the body, the fact that 75-80% of the immune system is represented in the gut is forutnate.

Autism spectrum disorders, ASDs, are conditions which involve interactions of the gut, hormonal, nervous, and immune systems. Research suggests that there may be a strong association of immune, brain, and gut involvement in autism. Sometimes this is referred to as the “immune-brain-gut triangle”. Disorders of the immune system, such as a lack of response to pathogens, too much inflammation, and/or autoimmune responses may contribute to autism spectrum disorders.

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Infinity Marine Speakers – A Brief Overview

crystal clear

Infinity marine speakers are among some of the company’s best offerings. Founded in 1968, Infinity is a well-known brand for automotive audio equipment, loved and respected by casual users and audiophiles alike. In fact, Infinity is the official audio partner of automotive brands like Hyundai and several cars in the Chrysler stable. Besides making speakers and audio equipment for cars, Infinity also produces an entire range of audio devices for boats. Infinity marine speakers are typically affordable, deliver great performance, and can withstand the elements as any good marine speakers should.

When buying marine speakers, the most important thing you should look for is durability. While any speakers can work well on a boat (though a boat’s shape and design offers slightly different acoustical challenges than a car), the constant exposure to water and the sun makes it imperative that the speakers be water and weather resistant to a high degree. Also, when buying speakers, always take any specification with a pinch of salt. For instance, most buyers tend to go by the number of watts offered by a system, which is essentially a useless number unless the speaker can actually deliver clear audio and render a large range of frequencies. A 500 watt speaker will not necessarily be better than a 100 watt speaker. Always pay attention to the actual performance, not specifications.

The range of Infinity marine speakers starts off with the extremely popular Infinity Reference 612m, 6.5-inch 225 watt 2-way marine speaker. This model isn’t priced low – it will set you back by at least $140 – but it delivers an impressive performance that combines the best of awesome power with crystal clear clarity. The Infinity 612m features polypropylene woofer cones that are not only lightweight but also completely sealed for marine use. The rubber surrounds are treated to be UV-resistant, which means you can keep these speakers out in the sun for hours without any risk of damage. The 1-1/4″ polypropylene semi-dome tweeter reproduces crystal clear sound, while the speaker itself is specially designed to be moisture resistant. The cast polymer basket that houses the speakers is corrosion proof and will withstand a high degree of salt, water, and UV damage.

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Infection Control of Blood Borne Pathogens: 3 Major Factors

blood borne

Infection control of blood borne pathogens is preventing their spread from one individual to another and thereby preventing illness and infection. The first step in infection control is to understand how the germs spread. The second step is, knowing how to control their spread.

There are 3 factors involved in infection control. There are discussed below:

• Knowing and practicing universal precautions

Universal precautions protect you from contracting infection by bloodborne pathogens. They also keep others around you safe. Hand washing, gloving and wearing protective clothing are the main precautions to be followed to control the spread of infection. Universal precautions are standards of infection control. They protect you from blood borne diseases like Hepatitis B, C and HIV. You must follow these precautions when you come in contact with blood and other human body fluids like semen, vaginal secretions, saliva, nasal secretions, vomit, urine and excretion.

Hand washing: Thorough, regular washing of hands will help to curb the spread of infection. Hospital employees must always wash hands before and after contact with patients and while using sterilized equipments.

Gloving: While attending patients and especially whenever you come in contact with body fluid you are required to wear disposable latex gloves. This is a part of the universal precautions. Correct donning and removing of gloves is crucial in preventing the spread of blood borne pathogens. Gloves should be changed after every use. New gloves are to be used for new patients as used or contaminated gloves can transfer germs from one patient to another. In the event of a glove tearing while working on a patient, take it off immediately and thoroughly wash your hands with soap and water.

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Infection Control Supplies – Protecting People From Invisible Enemies

infection control

In 2003, the city of Toronto – home to almost five million people – was faced with a respiratory infection they had never seen before. The Canadian and American centers for infectious diseases were brought in to consult, and the verdict was something called Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome, or SARS. It was a highly contagious disease that had originated in China and was making global headlines due to our jet-setting culture.

Almost overnight, everyone began carrying little bottles hand sanitizer. Hospitals instituted greater infection control procedures, including having this sanitizer available in every hallway, more frequent use of gloves and masks, and sealed ER rooms for respiratory and other contagious airborne issues. Non-drying antibacterial and antimicrobial hand soaps became available for doctors to use between patients.

It was very similar to the way, in the mid-1980s, that dental and medical practitioners began putting HIV prevention methods in place. Latex gloves became the norm. Red plastic boxes for biohazard and needle disposal were found in every doctor’s office, dentist and acupuncture clinic in North America. Special solvents and bleaches were developed to clean spilled blood.

infection control

In neo-natal units across the country, equipment is covered in plastic and other infection control supplies. Visitors are issued with sterile disposable clothing, masks and gloves. Personnel are in sanitary scrubs. The most vulnerable, tiny babies are protected from as much bacteria as science and industry has made possible.

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Infection Control – 4 Precautions You Must Take

reusable items

The nature of any healthcare facility is such that infections can pass on very easily between people if due care is not taken. Preventive measures like maintaining hand hygiene, using proper personal equipment, sterilization and vaccination become very important. However certain additional precautions are also necessary for minimizing the risks of communicable diseases and thus managing infection control more effectively.

The following 4 points will go a long way to ensure control in various healthcare facilities.

• Hygienic Habits: Following a set of proper habits and etiquette will help to prevent certain common infections from spreading. You must maintain respiratory hygiene and use tissues while sneezing. Also use the appropriate cough manners and remember to cover your mouth while coughing. Furthermore always discard the tissues after use and clean your hands and face with water or disinfectant cleaners that may be kept around. Use of face masks and seating patients showing typical symptoms of cold and coughs separately are additional measures that can be taken.

• Injury: Always take extreme care while handling any sharp instruments like needles and scalpels while administering treatment to avoid possibilities of Needlestick injuries. Remember to wear gloves to prevent any possible nicks or cuts. Also use proper devices to handle such objects and place them in a properly labeled and puncture-proof container immediately after use. If you are a patient and injure yourself due to any equipment or furniture in room, bring it to the notice of the nurse so that the injury can be treated promptly to eliminate the risk of possible infection.

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Infection Control – 4 Effective Methods of Patient Management

health care

It is true that within a health care facility infection can spread from contaminated instruments, materials and improper disposal, or even from the staff and visitors. But the fact remains that the patients are the single largest factor from which infection spreads and are also the most vulnerable when it comes to getting affected by such infection due to their medical condition and generally weakened immunity systems. In such a situation managing patients in a health care set up assumes extreme importance to check the spread of infection.

The following 4 points will help in better management of the patients for ensuring infection control.

• Proper Placement: Patients must not be accommodated randomly just to fill in the ‘gaps’. Remember that placement of a patient is very important in any hospital to reduce the chances of spreading infections. Patient placement in a general ward with plenty of beds is crucial, and any patient with a highly contagious disease must never be placed in the center of other patients as the susceptibility of contracting diseases increases greatly.

• Spacing: In addition to patient placement the spacing between beds is equally important. Having the beds too close to each other makes it difficult to accommodate medical equipment and also hinders movement and working of the health care staff, but more importantly in increases the risk of spreading of diseases through direct or even indirect contact, and also makes the patients more vulnerable to cross-contamination. Thus proper spacing is important for infection control, with the ideal distance being between 1 to 2 meters.

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Indoor Asthma Irritants – 5 Indoor Pollutants To Eliminate

mildew spores

Managing asthma effectively means reducing the triggers that cause flare ups. You can raise air quality and your quality of life by reducing these top 5 irritants in your indoor air.

Dust Mites – The presence of these little bugs can lead to the onset of asthma as well as exacerbate an existing condition. No one escapes these little bugs in their home regardless of how good a housekeeper you are.

They thrive in warm, moist, and dark places which makes the bedroom ideal, and more specifically every bed in your home, a perfect target.

Dust – This collection of particles is distinct to each home but generally includes dirt, minute pieces of paper from mail, magazines and other paper products, outdoor particles that get blown in such as pollen and mold and mildew spores, pet dander, and on it goes.

Airborne Chemicals – Unfortunately, these are becoming more prevalent in the products we use for everyday living. Scents from cleaning and personal products, formaldehyde used in building materials, chemicals that off gas from pressed wood furniture, and those used to fire-proof draperies and clothing can really pollute indoor air.

Being vigilant about the products you select to bring into your home can improve your air quality. But often it’s difficult to figure out which fumes or combinations are causing the problem.

Smoke – The banning of smoking in public places has resulted in major improvement of air quality in restaurants. But if you live with a smoker who can’t stop smoking, or your apartment situation makes you vulnerable to second-hand smoke, you’re in a tough spot.

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